MQTT Essentials Part 8: Retained Messages
Welcome to the eighth part of the MQTT Essentials, a blog series about the core features and concepts in the MQTT protocol. In this post we will introduce retained messages.
When publishing MQTT messages, a publishing client has no guarantee that a message is actually received by a subscribing client. It can only make sure its message gets delivered safely to the broker. The same is true for a subscribing client. If a client is connecting and subscribing to topics it is interested in, there is no guarantee when the subscriber will get the first message, because this totally depends on a publisher on that topic. It can take a few seconds, minutes or hours until the publisher sends a new message on that topic. Until then the subscribing client is totally in the dark about the current status. This is where retained messages come into play.
A retained message is a normal MQTT message with the retained flag set to true. The broker will store the last retained message and the corresponding QoS for that topic Each client that subscribes to a topic pattern, which matches the topic of the retained message, will receive the message immediately after subscribing. For each topic only one retained message will be stored by the broker.
The subscribing client doesn’t have to match the exact topic, it will also receive a retained message if it subscribes to a topic pattern including wildcards. For example client A publishes a retained message to myhome/livingroom/temperature and client B subscribes to myhome/# later on, client B will receive this retained message directly after subscribing. Also the subscribing client can identify if a received message was a retained message or not, because the broker sends out retained messages with the retained flag still set to true. A client can then decide on how to process the message.
So retained messages can help newly subscribed clients to get a status update immediately after subscribing to a topic and don’t have to wait until a publishing clients send the next update.
In other words a retained message on a topic is the last known good value, because it doesn’t have to be the last value, but it certainly is the last message with the retained flag set to true.
It is important to understand that a retained message has nothing to do with a persistent session of any client, which we covered in the last episode. Once a retained message is stored by the broker, the only way to remove it is explained below.
Send a retained message
Sending a retained message from the perspective of a developer is quite simple and straight-forward. You just need to set the retained flag of a MQTT publish message to true. Each client library typically provides an easy way to do that.
Delete a retained message
There is also a very simple way for deleting a retained message on a topic: Just send a retained message with a zero byte payload on that topic where the previous retained message should be deleted. The broker deletes the retained message and all new subscribers won’t get a retained message for that topic anymore. Often deleting is not necessary, because each new retained message will overwrite the last one.
Why and when you should use Retained Messages ?
A retained message makes sense, when newly connected subscribers should receive messages immediately and shouldn’t have to wait until a publishing client sends the next message. This is extremely helpful when for status updates of components or devices on individual topics. For example the status of device1 is on the topic myhome/devices/device1/status, a new subscriber to the topic will get the status (online/offline) of the device immediately after subscribing when retained messages are used. The same is true for clients, which send data in intervals, temperature, GPS coordinates and other data. Without retained messages new subscribers are kept in the dark between publish intervals. So using retained messages helps to provide the last good value to a connecting client immediately.
So that’s the end of part eight in our MQTT Essentials series. We hope you enjoyed it. In the next post we’ll cover a feature called Last Will and Testament. It makes it possible to send a last message, when a client is disconnected abruptly.
Have a great week and we’ll hope to see you on the next MQTT Monday!
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